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Achillea Millefolium

Achillea millefolium, commonly known as yarrow or common yarrow, is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae . It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Asia, Europe, and North America.In New Mexico and southern Colorado, it is called plumajillo (Spanish for ‘little feather’) from its leaf shape and texture. In antiquity, yarrow was known as herbal militaris, for its use in stanching the flow of blood from wounds. Achillea millefolium is an erect, herbaceous, perenial plan.The plant has a strong, sweet scent, similar to that of chrysanthemums.

Adiantum Capillus Veneri

Adiantum capillus-veneris, the Southern maidenhair fern, black maidenhair fern, maidenhair fern, and venus hair fern, is a species of ferns in the genus Adiantum and the family Pteridaceae with a subcosmopolitan worldwide distribution. It is cultivated as a popular garden fern and houseplant.It is found in temperate climates from warm-temperate to tropical, where the moisture content is high but not saturating, in the moist, well-drained sand, loam or limestone of many habitates including rainforests, shrub and woodlands, broadleaf and coniferous forests, and desert cliff seeps, and springs. It often may be seen growing on moist, sheltered and shaded sandstone or limestone formations, generally south-facing in the southern hemisphere, north-facing in the north, or in gorges. It occurs throughout Africa in moist places by streams. On moist sandstone cliffs it grows in full or partial shade, even when unprotected.

Althaea Officinalis

Althaea officinalis (marsh-mallow, marsh mallow , or common marshmallow) is a perennial species indigenous to Europe Western Asia, and North Africa, which is used as a medicinal plant and ornamental plant. A confection made from the root since ancient Egyptian time evolved into today’s marsh-mallow treat.

The entire plant, particularly the root, abounds with a mild mucilage, which is emollient to a much greater degree than the common mallow. The generic name, Althaea, is derived from the Greek ἄλθειν (to cure), from its healing properties. The name of the family, Malvaceae, is derived from the Latin malva, a generic name for the mallows and the source of the English common name mallow.

Most of the mallows have been used as food, and are mentioned by early classic writers with this connection. Mallow was an edible vegetable among the Romans; a dish of marsh mallow was one of their delicacies. Prospero Alpini stated in 1592 that a plant of the mallow kind was eaten by the Egyptians. Many of the poorer inhabitants of Syria subsisted for weeks on herbs, of which marsh mallow is one of the most common. When boiled first and fried with onions and butter, the roots are said to form a palatable dish, and in times of scarcity consequent upon the failure of the crops, this plant, which grows there in great abundance, is collected heavily as a foodstuff.

Artemisia Absinthi

Artemisia absinthium (absinthe, absinthium, absinthe wormwood, grand wormwood, wormwood) is a species of Artemisia, native to temperate regions of Eurasia and Northern Africa and widely naturalized in Canada and the northern United State. It is grown as an ornamental plant and is used as an ingredient in the spirit absinthe, as well as some other alcoholic beverages.Artemisia absinthium is a herbaceous, perennial plant with fibrous roots. The stems are straight, growing to 0.8–1.2 metres (rarely 1.5 m, but, sometimes even larger) tall, grooved, branched, and silvery-green. The leaves are spirally arranged, greenish-grey above and white below, covered with silky silvery-white trichomes, and bearing minute oil-producing glands; the basal leaves are up to 25 cm long, bipinnate to tripinnate with long petioles, with the cauline leaves (those on the stem) smaller, 5–10 cm long, less divided, and with short petioles; the uppermost leaves can be both simple and sessile (without a petiole). Its flowers are pale yellow, tubular, and clustered in spherical bent-down heads (capitula), which are in turn clustered in leafy and branched panicles. Flowering is from early summer to early autumn; pollination is anemophilous . The fruit is a small achene; seed dispersal is by gravity.It grows naturally on uncultivated, arid ground, on rocky slopes, and at the edge of footpaths and fields. Although once relatively common, it is becoming increasingly rare in the Uk where it has recently been suggested to be an archeophyte rather than a true native.

Bilberries – Vaccinum Myrtillus

Bilberries, Vaccinium myrtillus, are very similar to their American cousins blueberries and huckleberries– and like all members of the Vaccinium species, they’re high in antioxidants due to the rich bluered pigments responsible for their unmistakable color.

Bilberry Leaf – Vaccinium myrtillus

Bilberry Leaf – Vaccinium myrtillus. The bilberry bush is marked by small leathery leaves, similar to that of the myrtle bush, and clusters of deep purple berries. The leaves are often steeped in water to release their tannins and provide a delicious antioxidant rich tea.

Birch Bark – Betula alba

Birch Bark, well known for its uses in building and tanning by Native Americans, has also been employed as a poultice and steeped into tea for its cleansing properties.

Buckthorn Bark – Rhamnus frangula

Buckthorn Bark – Rhamnus frangula. Buckthorn, also known as Frangula, is native to Europe, the Mediterranean, Northwest Asia and Northern Africa. Proper aging of the bark is required to allow its primary active constituent, anthrone, to oxidize. Buckthorn, also known as Frangula, is native to Europe, the Mediterranean, Northwest Asia and Northern Africa. Proper aging of the bark is required to allow its primary active constituent, an throne, to oxidize and prevent intestinal cramping when taken as a tea.

Calendula – Calendula officinalis

Calendula has been used an herbal remedy and as coloring and flavoring for food in Central and Southern Europe since the 1100s. Commonly known there as marigold, calendula is an annual flower native to the northern Mediterranean countries. It’s well known for its skin-soothing properties — this gentle herb is used as an ingredient in all types of skin care preparations, including salves, body washes, creams,ointments and lotions.

Centaury – Centaurium erythraea

Centaury is a widespread plant of Europe and parts of western Asia and northern Africa. The triangular leaves are arranged oppositely on the stem and the erect inflorescences emerge from the stem and grow parallel to it, sometimes tangling with the foliage. Each inflorescence may contain many flowers. It flowers from June till September.

Ceterach Officinarum

Ceterach officinarum (Asplenium ceterach) is a fern species commonly known as Rustyback. It is characterised by a short rhizome which gives rise to several green fronds that have a pinnated lamina with trichomes on the abaxial (lower) surface, but not the adaxial (upper) one. These trichomes (hairs) are orange-brown in colour, hence the name “rustyback”. The petiole is shorter than the corpus of the leaf.This species is found in Western and Central Europe, including the Mediterranea Region. It is associated with fissures in carbonate rocks and also grows on the mortar of stone and brick walls.This fern species has been used medicinally as a diuretic.It likes growing in rocky walls, especially in alkaline ones. Can be found growing up to 2700 metres above the sea level, although it prefers mountainous locations, where it is usually found growing in sunny rocky walls.Unlike many others, this fern likes growing in full sun, and requires little, if any, humidity.

Common Horsetail – Equisetum arvense

Equisetum arvense, the field horsetail or common horsetail, is an herbaceous perennial horsetail native throughout the arctic and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. It has separate sterile non-reproductive and fertile spore-bearing stems growing from a perennial underground rhizomatous stem system. The fertile stems are produced in early spring and are non-photosynthetic, while the green sterile stems start to grow after the fertile stems have wilted and persist through the summer until the first autumn frosts. It is sometimes confused with mare’s tail, Hippuris vulgaris.The sterile stems are 10–90 cm tall and 3–5 mm diameter, with jointed segments around 2–5 cm long with whorls of side shoots at the segment joints; the side shoots have a diameter of about 1 mm. Some stems can have as many as 20 segments. The fertile stems are of a succulent texture, off-white, 10–25 cm tall and 3–5 mm diameter, with 4–8 whorls of brown scale leaves and an apical brown spore cone 10–40 mm long and 4–9 mm broad. It is found in rich and moist soils, cultivable areas or near streams and is little changed from its ancestors of the Carboniferous period

Crataegus Monogyna

Crataegus monogyna, known as common hawthorn or single-seeded hawthorn, is a species of hawthorn native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. It has been introduced in many other parts of the world. It can be an invasive weed.The common hawthorn is a shrub or small tree 5–14 metres (15 to 45 feet) tall, with a dense crown. The bark is dull brown with vertical orange cracks. The younger stems bear sharp thorns, approximately 12.5mm (half an inch) long. The leaves are 20 to 40mm (1 to 1½ inches) long, obovate and deeply lobed, sometimes almost to the midrib, with the lobes spreading at a wide angle. The upper surface is dark green above and paler underneath.The hermaphrodete flowers are produced in late spring (May to early June in its native area) in corymbs of 5-25 together; each flower is about 10mm diameter, and has five white petals, numerous red stamens, and a single style; they are moderately fragrant. The flowers are pollinated by midges, bees and other insects and later in the year bear numerous haws. The haw is a small, oval dark red fruit about 10mm long, berry-like, but structurally a pome containing a single seed.Crataegus monogyna is one of the most common species used as the “hawthorn” of traditional herbalins. The plant parts used are usually sprigs with both leaves and flowers, or alternatively the fruit (“berries”). Hawthorne has been investigated by evidence based medicine for treating cardiac insufficiency. Crataegus monogyna is a source of antioxitand phytochemicals, especially extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers.

Cyan Flower – Centaurea Cyanus

Centaurea cyanus, commonly known as cornflower or bachelor’s button,is an annual flowring plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe. In the past it often grew as a weed in cornfields (in the broad sense of the word “corn”, referring to grains, such as wheat, barley, rye, or oats), hence its name. It is now endangered in its native habitat by agricultural intensification, particularly over-use of herbicides, destroying its habitat. It is also, however, through introduction as an ornamental plant in gardens and a seed contaminant in crop seeds, now naturalised in many other parts of the world, including North America and parts of Australia.

Cynodon Dactylon

Cynodon dactylon, also known as Vilfa stellata dūrvā grass, Dhoob, Bermuda grass, dubo, dog’s tooth grass, Bahama grass, devil’s grass, couch grass, Indian doab, arugampul, grama, wiregrass and scutch grass, is a grass that originated in the Middle East. Although it is not native to Bermuda, it is an abundant invasive species there. It is presumed to have arrived in North America from Bermuda, resulting in its common name. In Bermuda it has been known as crab grass.The blades are a grey-green color and are short, usually 2–15 cm (0.79–5.91 in) long with rough edges. The erect stems can grow 1–30 cm (0.39–11.81 in) tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in colour.The seed heads are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long.It has a deep root system; in drought situations with penetrable soil, the root system can grow to over 2 metres (6.6 ft) deep, though most of the root mass is less than 60 centimetres (24 in) under the surface. The grass creeps along the ground and roots wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces through seeds, runners, and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F) with optimum growth between 24 and 37 °C (75 and 99 °F); in winter, the grass becomes dormant and turns brown. Growth is promoted by full sun and retarded by full shade, e.g., close to tree trunks.

Elder – Sambucus Nigra

Sambucus nigra is a species complex of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae native to most of Europe and North America Common names include elder, elderberry, black elder, European elder, European elderberry and European black elderberry. It grows in a variety of conditions including both wet and dry fertile soils, primarily in sunny locations.It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 6 m (20 ft) tall and wide,rarely 10 m (33 ft) tall). The bark, light grey when young, changes to a coarse grey outer bark with lengthwise furrowing. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, 10–30 cm long, pinnate with five to seven (rarely nine) leaflets, the leaflets 5–12 cm long and 3–5 cm broad, with a serrated margin.