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Verbenae Officinalis

Verbena officinalis, the common vervain or common verbena, is a perennial herb native to Europe. It grows up to a metre/yard high, with an upright habitus. The lobed leaves are toothed, the delicate spikes hold mauve flowers.This plant prefers limey soils; it is occasionally grown as an ormamental plant but perhaps more often for the powerful properties some herbalist ascribe to it. Propagation is by root cuttings or seed. It is widely naturalised outside its native range, for example in North America.

Viscum Album

Viscum album is a species of mistleteo in the family, Santalaceae, commonly known as European mistletoe, common mistletoe or simply as mistletoe (Old English mistle). It is native to Europe and western and southern Asia.Viscum album is a hemiparasite on several species of trees, from which it draws water and nutrients. It has a significant role in European mythology, legends, and customs. In modern times, it is commonly featured in Christmas decoration and symbology. (V. album is found only rarely in North America, as an introduced species; its cultural roles are usually fulfilled by the similar native species Phoradendrom leucarpum.)It is a hemi-parasitic shrub, which grows on the stems of other trees. It has stems 30–100 centimetres long with dichotomous branching. The leaves are in opposite pairs, strap-shaped, entire, leathery textured, 2–8 centimetres long, 0.8–2.5 centimetres broad and are a yellowish-green in colour. This species is dioecious and the insect-pollinated floweres are inconspicuous, yellowish-green, 2–3 millimetres diameter. The fruit is a white or yellow berry containing one (very rarely several) seed embedded in the very sticky, glutinous fruit pulp.It is commonly found in the crowns of broad-leaved trees, particularly apple, lime (linden), hawthorn and popular.

Vitex Agni Casti – Chasteberry

Vitex agnus-castus, also called vitex, chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham’s balm, lilac chastetree, or monk’s pepper, is a native of the Mediterranean region. It is one of the few temperate-zone species of Vitex, which is on the whole a genus of tropical and sub-tropical flowering plants. Theophrastus mentioned the shrub several times, as agnos(άγνος) in Enquiry into Plants. It has been long believed to be an anaphrodiciac – leading to its name as chaste tree – but its effectiveness for such action remains unproven.Vitex is a cross- pollinating plant, but its self pollination has been recorded.Vitex agnus-castus is widely cultivated in warm temperate and subtropical regions for its delicate-textured aromatic foliage and butterfly attracting spikes of lavender flowers in late summer in cooler climates. It grows to a height of 1–5 meters. It requires full sun or partial shade along with well-drained soil. Under ideal conditions it is hardy to -10 degrees F and can be found on the south shore of Long Island and Nantucket on the East Coast of North America and in the southwest of England. This plant is a brackish water dweller, indicating that it tolerates salt. Cold and wet weather results to high yield loss of Monks pepper. The plant grows well on loamy neutral to alkaline soil.The monk’s pepper fruits from one single tree can be harvested for more than 15 years. This indicates that the monk’s pepper cannot be integrated in a usual crop ratation system. It is suggested to sow dissimilar plants such as monocats as its subsequent crop so that it might be easier to control the monk’s pepper plant, the dicot.